National Register of Citizens(NRC)

We are hearing about NRC for a long time  as such it is to be  understood first what is NRC..The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a register of all Indian citizens whose creation is mandated by the 2003 amendment of the Citizenship Act, 1955. It has been initially implemented for  Assam starting in 2013–2014.  Assam, being a border state with unique problems of illegal immigration, had a NRC created  in 1951 based on the 1951 census data. However, it was not maintained afterwards. The Tribunal Act, 1983  was  passed by the Parliament, creating a separate tribunal process for identifying illegal migrants in Assam. The Supreme Court of India struck it down as unconstitutional in 2005, after which the Government of India agreed to update the Assam NRC.

Due to unsatisfactory progress regarding the process of updating the Assam NRC for over a decade, the Supreme Court started directing and monitoring the process in 2013..The final updated NRC for Assam, published on 31 August 2019, contained 3.1 crore names out of its population of 3.3 crore leaving out 19 lakh applicants.

Now  The Government of India plans to implement it for the rest of the country in 2021. According to the Citizenship Rules, 2003, the central government can issue an order to prepare the National Population Register (NPR) and create the NRC based on the data gathered in it. 

.. After the completion of the Assam NRC exercise, the ruling government did not find the results meeting its expectations. It is believed that several legitimate citizens were excluded while illegal migrants were included..The register was created because “illegal migration from Bangladesh has  been a concern” in Assam. However ,it  helps protect non-Muslims who are not in the register and face arrest or deportation.

The Citizenship Act of 1955 provides for compulsory registration of every citizen of India and issuance of National Identity Card to him. The Citizenship Rules of 2003, framed under the Citizenship Act of 1955, prescribe the manner of preparation of the National Register of Citizens. There is a special provision under the rules to prepare the National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Assam which is application-based and distinct from the rest of India where the process is enumeration-based.

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